History of Niger
While most of what is now Niger has been subsumed into the inhospitable Sahara
desert in the last two thousand years, five thousand years ago the north of
the country was fertile grasslands. Populations of pastoralists have left paintings
of abundant wildlife, domesticated animals, chariots, and a complex culture
that dates back to at least 10,000 BCE. Several former northern villages and
archaeological sites date from the Green Sahara period of 7,500-7,000 to 3,500-3,000BCE
Early historical period
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
The Songhai Empire expanded into what is modern Niger from the 1400s, reaching as far as Agadez before its collapse in 1591, from which the modern Zarma and Songhai peoples trace their history. At its fall, portions of the empire and refugees from modern Mali formed a series of Songhai states, with the Dendi Kingdom becoming the most powerful. From the 1200s, the nomadic Tuareg formed large confederations, pushed southward, into the Aïr Mountains, displacing some previous residents to the south. At their peak, the Tuareg confederations ruled most of what is now northern Niger, and extended their influence into modern Nigeria.
In the 18th century, Fula pastoralists moved into the Liptako area of the west,
while smaller Zarma kingdoms, siding with various Hausa states, clashed with
the expanding Fulani Empire of Sokoto from the south. The colonial border with
British Nigeria was in part based on the rupture between the Sokoto Caliphate
to the south, and Hausa ruling dynasties which had fled to the north. In the
far east around the Lake Chad basin, the successive expansion of the Kanem Empire
and Bornu Empire spread ethnically Kanuri and Toubou rulers and their subject
states as far west as Zinder and the Kaouar Oases from the 10th to the 17th
The Kaouar escarpment, forming an oasis in the Ténéré desert.
In the 19th century, contact with the West began when the first European explorers—notably Mungo Park (British) and Heinrich Barth (German)—explored the area, searching for the source of the Niger River. Although French efforts at "pacification" began before 1900, dissident ethnic groups, especially the desert Tuareg, were not fully subdued until 1922, when Niger became a French colony.
Niger's colonial history and development parallel that of other French West
African territories. France administered its West African colonies through a
governor general in Dakar, Senegal, and governors in the individual territories,
including Niger. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants
of the territories, the 1946 French constitution provided for decentralization
of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies.
A further revision in the organization of overseas territories occurred with
the passage of the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of July 23, 1956, followed
by reorganizing measures enacted by the French Parliament early in 1957. In
addition to removing voting inequalities, these laws provided for creation of
governmental organs, assuring individual territories a large measure of self-government.
After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on December 4, 1958, Niger
became an autonomous state within the French Community. Following full independence
on August 3, 1960, however, membership was allowed to lapse.
Single party and military rule (1961-1991)
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Dr. Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterized by good relations with the west and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
For its first fourteen years as an independent state, Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. In 1974, a combination of devastating drought and accusations of rampant corruption resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime. Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group ruled the country until Kountché's death in 1987.
He was succeeded by his Chief of Staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who released political prisoners, liberalized some of Niger's laws and policies, and promulgated a new constitution, with the creation of a single party constitutional Second Republic. However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990.
New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a national peace
conference was convened in July 1991 to prepare the way for the adoption of
a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections. The debate was
often contentious and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André
Salifou, the conference developed a plan for a transition government.
This caretaker government was installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes; and the holding of several free, fair, and non-violent nationwide elections. Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new independent newspapers.
The results of the January 1995 parliamentary election meant cohabitation between
a rival president and prime minister; this led to governmental paralysis, which
provided Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the
Third Republic in January 1996.
Military rule and the Fourth Republic
While leading a military authority that ran the government (Conseil de Salut National) during a 6-month transition period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May 1996. Baré organized a presidential election in July 1996. While voting was still going on, he replaced the electoral commission. The new commission declared him the winner after the polls closed. His party won 57% of parliament seats in a flawed legislative election in November 1996.
When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable elections failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored an international embargo against Libya and sought Libyan funds to aid Niger's economy. In repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, and deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned.
As part of an initiative started under the 1991 national conference, however,
the government signed peace accords in April 1995 with all, meaning Tuareg and
Toubou groups that had been in rebellion since 1990. The Tuareg claimed they
lacked attention and resources from the central government. The government agreed
to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance,
help others return to a productive civilian life.
Mamadou Tandja, Deposed President of the Republic of Niger
Fifth Republic since 1999
On April 9, 1999, Baré was killed in a coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké, who established a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential system.
In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new constitution in July 1999 and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November 1999. Heading a coalition of the National Movement for a Developing Society (MNSD) and the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS), Mamadou Tandja won the election.
In a February 2010 coup d'état, a military junta was established in response to Tandja's attempted extension of his political term through constitutional manipulation. The coup established a junta led by the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy.